全面质量管理(TQM):快速指南

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全面质量管理(TQM)通过做一些必要的事情来保持成功,以使客户满意。 当然,这种满足感扎根于员工,流程和整个组织中,远早于任何产品或服务到达其客户之前。

How does a business or organization make sure that their processes and people are aligned with creating success and customer satisfaction? That’s where 总 质量 管理 comes in, and like its name says, it’s a method to control and constantly work on improving 质量.

全面质量管理定义

The key to be successful in any marketplace is to never get complacent. To that end, 总 质量 管理 is an organization-wide effort to create a constant thrust towards improvement.

改善是关键

可以将这种改善定义为员工提供随需应变的产品和服务的能力,即使他们的需求发生变化,该产品和服务也能为其客户带来价值。那是“quality” in 总 质量 管理. The “total”表示努力是涉及组织每个员工的每一寸努力。

因此,不仅是遵循这一传奇的生产部门;它还指导销售,营销,会计,财务,工程,设计等。组织中的所有部门均负责改善其运营。

管理使它成为现实

那是“total” and the “quality”TQM方法论的一个方面,但“management” is equally as important a component. The 管理 means that executives are obligated to manage this striving for progressive improvements. This can be done through funding, training, choosing 最好的工具,人员配备,目标设定等。

As a methodology, however, 总 质量 管理 has no widely agreed upon approach. It does, though, draw from other tools and techniques, such as project 质量 control, 质量 assurance and testing, 和别的。

全面质量管理(TQM)要素

全面质量管理的历史

The roots of 总 质量 管理 can be traced back to the economic instability of the late 1970s and into the early 1980s. It was at this time that the dominance of North America and Western Europe was challenged 通过 competition from the East, specifically Japan’s skill at making high-quality inexpensive products.

尽管该术语的来源尚不清楚,但许多人认为它是受该书启发的 全面质量控制 通过 质量 control expert and businessman Armand V. Feigenbaum and 什么是全面质量国家?日本方式 组织理论家石川薰。

美国海军的作用

It was the United States Navy that promoted the idea in 1984 when it asked its civilian researchers to offer recommendations on improving its operational effectiveness. The recommendation was to use the teachings of engineer and statistician W. Edwards Deming, which the U.S. Navy called 总 质量 管理 in 1985.

1985年,美国环境保护署的地下储罐计划采用了这种方法。私有部门很快采用了这种方法,以在与日军日益增长的影响力方面保持竞争力。

全面质量管理中的关键概念

The key concepts of 总 质量 管理 developed 通过 the U.S. Navy include:

  • 质量取决于客户的要求
  • Top-tier 管理 is directly responsible for the improvement in 质量
  • It is 通过 systemic analysis, and using that data to improve work processes, that an increase in 质量 occurs
  • The improvement of 质量 is a continuous effort and is conducted throughout the entire organization

The U.S. Navy employed certain techniques and tools to achieve those concepts. For example, there’s the Plan Do Check Act or PDCA cycle, which is a four-step 管理 method to control continuous improvement of processes and products.

有关: 如何实施业务流程改进

基本上,这是建立目标和实现目标的过程。然后,执行该计划并检查数据和结果,以查看有效的方法和无效的方法。最后,行动(也称为调整)是实施改进的周期中的一部分。

也有专案的形成 跨职能团队 负责解决当前流程问题的人员。也有跨职能的常设团队,他们的职责相似,只有长期的才有。

The need for an active 管理 participation is critical to the success of any 总 质量 管理 plan. This is done 通过 creating steering committees to make sure everyone is working together to improve 质量.

全面质量管理工具

When it comes to analyzing the 质量-related issues, the U.S. Navy employed the seven basic tools of 质量. This is a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting 质量-related issues. These tools are often used in 六个西格玛 也一样

TQM的七个工具是:

  • 用于实时收集数据的检查表
  • 控制图,以确定流程是否处于受控状态
  • 分层(或流动或运行)图表以对一组进行抽样
  • 帕累托图(Pareto chart),既是条形图又是折线图,可按类别评估最常见的缺陷
  • 直方图,通过描述在一定值范围内发生的观测频率,粗略评估给定变量的概率分布
  • 因果图
  • 散点图以显示一组数据中的两个值

全面质量管理要素

As the methodology of 总 质量 管理 moved from the military to the private sector, the key elements that make it up were further codified.

  • 以客户为中心: The definition of 质量 lies with the customer, and all efforts to achieve success in the organization lead to customer satisfaction.
  • 员工参与度: 这项工作并不局限于组织的一个部门。为了成功实现其客户满意度的目标,对于业务的各个方面以及每个员工都必须有一个共同的目标。
  • 面向过程: Process thinking is fundamental to 总 质量 管理; the internal steps a company takes directly result in the external output delivered to the customers.
  • 集成系统: 基本上,无论组织的规模或复杂程度如何,其所有不同部分都必须协同工作。
  • 战略和系统方法: 使用 策略计划 to create a strategic plan that integrates 质量 as a core component of the company is a way to structure 总 质量 管理 into an organization’s mission.
  • 持续改进: The mantra for 总 质量 improvement is customer satisfaction, but that is not a one-shot goal: the act of improving 质量 for the customer is a process without an end.
  • 基于事实的决策: 为了知道组织是否满足其目标,必须有有关绩效的数据,并且必须准确无误地收集和分析这些指标。 (有关此内容的更多信息,请学习 如何使用数据成为更好的管理者
  • 通讯: 没有有效的沟通计划,就不可能维持成功的TQM方法。 沟通计划 确保每个部门都知道自己和他人的职责,以便他们可以协调运营以实现他们的共同目标。

如何实施全面质量管理

Getting started with 总 质量 管理 requires that the top 管理 learn about the methodology, and then commit to it as one of the organization’s strategies. The organization writ large must then assess its customer satisfaction and 质量 管理 systems.

The top 管理 must then identify the core values and principles that they intend to use and communicate them throughout the organization. This can include a revised 使命宣言。据此制定了总体规划。然后,组织将确定客户需求并确定其优先级,并确保其产品和服务与这些需求保持一致。

The processes to meet customer needs are outlined 通过 管理 and managed 通过 a steering committee. Managers help through planning, training, coaching and whatever else might foster progress. Also, they facilitate daily process 管理 and standardization 评估报告 并根据需要进行修订。这包括员工的反馈。

从将关键业务流程应用到“专家”方法,可以使用多种策略来实施TQM。后者是当指导来自一个或多个主要思想家时。有时领导来自组织内的个人或团队。还有日本模式和奖励标准方法,前者遵循日本方法,而后者则侧重于奖励改进质量。

As the name says, 总 质量 管理 is a systemic change to the strategic goals of an organization. It impacts everyone and every department. Therefore, having the right tools to manage and communicate this process throughout an organization is critical. ProjectManager.com is a cloud-based project 管理 software that gives managers and teams the control to plan, track and report on the progress of this or any methodology. See for yourself 通过 taking 这个30天的免费试用期。

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